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高中、大学体检将筛查抑郁症!这个数据上了热搜……

时间:2020-09-17 12:10 公众号:21世纪英文报 阅读:3 次

不是矫情,不是软弱

更不是想太多……

抑郁症,是一场情绪的感冒

是一种被忽视了太久的病……


这几天,抑郁症再次上了热搜。国家卫健委近日明确抑郁症防治4类重点人群,即青少年、孕产妇、老年人群、高压职业人群,同时提出将抑郁症筛查纳入高中及高校学生体检。


The National Health Commission has through a new guiding document asked high schools and colleges to screen students for depressive disorder during annual physical examinations, hospitals to screen women for the same during pregnancy examinations, and communities to conduct annual spiritual health screening for senior citizens.


抑郁症侵袭青少年群体


中国青少年研究中心和共青团中央国际联络部曾经发布的一份《中国青年发展报告》显示,我国17岁以下儿童青少年中,约3000万人受到各种情绪障碍和行为问题困扰。


据中国国际电视台报道,青少年和儿童是极易遭遇心理健康问题的一大人群。一些学生因为行为和心理问题、家庭问题或社会压力而厌学。


Adolescents and children are among the most vulnerable groups to experience mental health problems. In China, some students lose interest in going to school due to behavioral and psychological problems, family issues or social pressure. 


图源:图虫创意


一位13岁的女孩被诊断患有抑郁症后,回想起去年的校园生活,她表示自己害怕和朋友们聊天,羞于分享自己的情感甚至试图伤害自己:“我经常莫名哭泣,但我不想让别人知道我病了。”


"I cry a lot for no apparent reason, but I don't want people to know I am sick," said a 13-year-old girl who was diagnosed with depressive disorder. She recalled her school life last year, saying that she was scared to talk to friends, felt ashamed to share her emotion and tried to hurt herself. 


她说:“我能感觉到来自胸口深处的疼痛”。


"I can feel the pain in my chest, very deep pain inside there," she said.


此外,年轻人群体中的抑郁症情况也日益严重。缺乏正常的家庭生活,网络成瘾,抗压能力不足以及身边环境的突然变化等是触发抑郁症的主要原因。疫情期间,隔离在家也容易让不少孩子感到不适应。


Depression is also said to be increasing among young people. Lack of a normal family life, overdependence on the internet, poor ability to handle pressure and rapid changes in their environment are the major reasons that trigger mental disorders. During the COVID-19 epidemic, it is easy for children to feel like they are sick when social isolation is enforced.  


而大学生群体中的抑郁症发病率也不容忽视。据《中国青年报》报道,近年来,大学生抑郁症发病率逐年攀升,大一和大三是抑郁症高发期,大一新生入学、大三接近毕业择业,学生均容易陷入抑郁。学业、人际、恋爱、家庭及就业压力是主要诱因。而埃菲社2017年4月曾报道,世卫组织驻华代表在一次活动中表示,调查显示四分之一的中国大学生承认曾有过抑郁症状。



这样的现状也引起了国家层面的重视。


9月11日,国家卫健委官网发布《探索抑郁症防治特色服务工作方案》。方案提出,各个高中及高等院校将抑郁症筛查纳入学生健康体检内容,建立学生心理健康档案,评估学生心理健康状况,对测评结果异常的学生给予重点关注。


图源:中华人民共和国国家卫生健康委员会官网


《方案》还提出了这样的目标:到2022年,公众对抑郁症防治知识的知晓率达80%,学生对防治知识知晓率达85%。抑郁症就诊率在现有基础上提升50%,治疗率提高30%,年复发率降低30%。非精神专科医院的医师对抑郁症的识别率在现有基础上提升50%,规范治疗率在现有基础上提升20%。


The action plan set a target whereby depression prevention knowledge will have been popularized among 80 percent of the general population and 85 percent of students by 2022. The commission also urged measures to attain a 50-percent rise in the proportion of depression patients getting professional medical help by 2022.


除青少年群体外,《方案》还明确加大对孕产妇、老年人群、高压职业人群的干预力度。方案中提到,将孕产期抑郁症筛查纳入常规孕检和产后访视;每年为辖区老年人开展精神健康筛查。



视频来源:央视新闻


抑郁症成人类第二大杀手!
有些人可能笑着也想自杀


据世卫组织估算,全球共约3.5亿名抑郁症患者。作为一种常见病,抑郁症已成人类第二大“杀手”。


Depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and affects people in all communities across the world. Today, depression is estimated to affect 350 million people. 


据中国国际电视台报道,一项2019年的流行病研究显示,我国约有16.6%的人患有某种类型的精神疾病。


An epidemiological survey in 2019 showed that around 16.6 percent of Chinese people suffered from mental health disorders of some kind.


据中新网报道,根据世界卫生组织给出的报告,抑郁症的最坏后果是可能导致自杀行为,这是目前15-29岁人群的第二大死亡原因。


我们经常看到,谈到抑郁症时,很多人会用“黑狗”(black dog)来指代这一疾病。温斯顿·丘吉尔经常被认为是第一个使用这个比喻的人。丘吉尔把他频繁的、绝望的、持续的抑郁症描述为被一只黑狗抓住了。


Winston Churchill's name frequently comes up as the originator of this metaphor. Churchill described his frequent, desperate and often prolonged bouts of depression as being seized by a black dog.


然而,对于这样一个悄悄渗透进我们生活的致命“杀手”,很多人却对它缺乏了解,有人认为,抑郁症是软弱、矫情、抗压能力差……其实不然。抑郁症可能发生在任何人身上,很多开朗微笑的人,内心也可能正在经历巨大的痛苦和煎熬。


下面是American Psychiatric Association网站上对depression的科普↓↓↓


什么是抑郁症?

What is depression?

抑郁症是一种常见的严重的医学疾病,它会对你的感觉、思维方式和行为产生负面影响。幸运的是,它也是可以治疗的。抑郁会导致悲伤和或对曾经喜欢的活动失去兴趣。它会导致各种情绪和身体问题,并会降低一个人在工作和家庭中的能力。


Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. Fortunately, it is also treatable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person's ability to function at work and at home.

抑郁症不是不开心而已

Depression is not grief

在悲痛中,自尊通常得以维持。在重度抑郁症中,感觉自己毫无价值和自我厌恶是很常见的。


In grief, self-esteem is usually maintained. In major depression, feelings of worthlessness and self-loathing are common.


对一些人来说,亲人的去世会导致严重的抑郁症。对于一些人来说,失去工作、受到身体攻击或经历重大灾难都会导致抑郁。


For some people, the death of a loved one can bring on major depression. Losing a job or being a victim of a physical assault or a major disaster can lead to depression for some people. 


尽管悲伤和抑郁有一些重叠,但它们是不同的。区分它们可以帮助人们得到他们需要的帮助、支持或治疗。


Despite some overlap between grief and depression, they are different. Distinguishing between them can help people get the help, support or treatment they need.


而关注抑郁症患者常有的“三低六无”的表现,能帮助你及时识别抑郁症↓↓↓


面对患者,你可以这样做↓↓↓


而记住下面几点,别让心理问题打败你! 


综合来源:CGTN 人民日报 CHINADAILY微信公众号 WHO


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